Abstract

In order to compare the effects of leisure physical activity (LPA), aerobic training (AT) and aerobic plus resistance training (AT + RT) as part of a 6-month interdisciplinary therapy in body composition, insulin resistance and leptin concentrations in obese adolescents, 72 volunteers (n = 24 in each group) ages 15-19 years were evaluated. Delta (Δ) body mass (kg) and Δ BMI (kg/m(2)) was different between AT and LPA groups and in AT + RT group compared to both LPA and AT groups; Δ body fat mass (kg and %) was different only in AT + RT group compared to both LPA and AT; Δ body lean mass (%) was different only in AT + RT group; Δ body lean mass (kg) was negative only in AT and positive and different from AT in AT + RT group; ΔHOMA-IR did not differ among groups; Δ leptin (ng/ml) was negative and different from LPA for both AT and AT + RT groups. In conclusion, both AT and AT + RT promoted a reduction on leptin levels, however, the adolescents subjected to AT + RT presented better results in body composition than the AT group. These results highlight the importance of associating aerobic and resistance training with nutritional and psychological approaches in the treatment of obese adolescents.

Here’s the important points from the FULL paper:

  • Comparison between aerobic training (AT) vs. resistance training (RT) for fat loss
  • AT alone group lost approximately 7 lbs of fat mass, but also 6 lbs of lean body mass
  • AT + RT group lost approximately 22 lbs of fat mass and saw an increase(!) in approximately 4 lbs of lean body mass.

Optimal fat loss can be achieved through a proper diet (with a small to moderate caloric deficit), resistance training (I prefer lifting weights with an emphasis on strength and power), and aerobic training (interval cardio would be best - lower impact HIIT).

The FDA has released its mock-up of a proposed new label for food. On it, calorie counts go big and bold. What’s out? Listing calories from fat. What else is new? More details on added sugars.

This is a step in the right direction. I hope to see more of an importance placed on dietary fiber and essential nutrients in the future.

Are you really allergic to gluten, or are you just doing it to seem cool? Here’s how you know, from a genuine Celiac sufferer…

1) You talk about your gluten allergy at parties.

Have you ever been at a cocktail party and heard someone say “I just found out I’m allergic to ragweed, and boy was it an eye-opener!” Nope, because that doesn’t sound cool. Allergies are not cool. They’re the domain of nerds and dweebos, kids who sit in the back of chemistry class and suck air from an inhaler. I should know, I was that kid. Gluten Allergies however, somehow have become awesome. But no actual sufferer would ever brag about them. Because we know that when you say “I can’t eat gluten,” you’re not saying I’m unique and original, you’re actually declaring, “If I lick a crouton my insides fall out.” And insides falling out is not the sort of thing one discusses at parties.

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This is satirical article, so make sure that you approach it as such. It’s not meant to define the differences between a gluten allergy and celiac disease. It’s more meant to comment how we now have a nation of people saying they’re gluten intolerant when they have no idea what that even means or entails.

Newsflash: the majority of these people have no issues with gluten. It’s become a trend to say you feel better without it. 

Weight Loss Really Is Simple

I will say the word “weight” a lot in this post, but I want you to understand that you can lose weight by cutting off your head. The primary goal should be fat loss and not just “weight” as this could mean anything. I’ve been over the finer details concerning the difference in the two and how we achieve the desired fat loss over just weight loss already, but if needed I will expand on it again in future posts.

No specific macronutrient is going to make you gain weight unless you eat an overabundance of calories (being from whatever source) in comparison to your energy expenditure.

This means if your energy intake is HIGHER than your energy output you will GAIN weight. If your energy intake is LOWER than your energy output then you will LOSE weight.

This can be achieved through a variety of ways from increasing your activity (more energy output) to eating smaller portions (less energy intake) or you could combine both methods. The road you take is up to you, but I suggest that you find the activities you enjoy for more energy output or you’re going to hate increasing your activity level.

Like to dance? Shake your money maker. Like to be strong? Lift some heavy ass weights. Like the water? Swim, row, kayak. Like to swing back and forth and do pull-ups? Try crossfit. (Please don’t throw paleo creampuffs at me. Srs.) It doesn’t matter what you do to increase your energy output as long as it’s more than what you’re doing now. 

This is how I became a powerlifter. I started as a runner then became a marathon runner. I hate running. I loathe it. I found out I loved lifting weights and then I was bit by the iron bug and never looked back.

If you think you can’t lose weight and you don’t track your calories and/or macronutrients and you haven’t tried to increase your activity level then you’ve never tried to lose weight appropriately.

I want you to be healthy. I want you to be successful. I want you to achieve your goals. I want you to have the knowledge to be and do these things.

The fitness industry is famous for being chock-full of quacks and charlatans. There are heaps of people running their mouths online and off, pontificating about this nutrient or that, this way of training or that — without having learned the physiological basis for such recommendations or protocols. The fact that this field has so many wackos makes it difficult for the consumer to discern whose material is scientifically based, and whose material is a lot of hot air. This is the unfortunate side of the picture, but it’s also part of my point — you can be devoid of scientific knowledge (or you can create your own brand of pseudoscience), and still become successful in the fitness industry.
Alan Aragon
A restrictive diet will do more harm than good in the long run. Cheat meals are more of an indicator of a poor relationship with food or possible early signs of eating disorders. Moderation and balance in your dieting efforts is the key to long term success and making dieting a normal, healthy part of your lifestyle. There is no such thing as clean/dirty or good/bad foods. If you speak in such ways then it’s a dead giveaway that your knowledge of the bare basics and fundamentals of nutrition science is lacking. Being healthy isn’t just about your physical well being, but also how you are mentally and emotionally which when dieting improperly can take a significant blow.
A balanced approach does not require cheat meals or days. You’ll feel like you’re cheating the system when you learn to practice moderation and flexibility in your diet and you’ll be at a healthier state.

"Few things are more pretentious, hypocritical, and downright annoying to me than people who act morally superior about eating ‘clean’ but then have massive binges that they try to justify as ‘cheat’ meals. Let me tell you something, severe caloric restriction followed by massive uncontrolled binging is NOT an effective long term diet solution for your health… mentally or physically. It’s a recipe for an eating disorder. FIND BALANCE! Stop attaching ‘good’ or ‘bad’ labels to food. A small amount of ‘unclean’ food isn’t going to ruin your diet if you account for it in your macronutrient intake and consume it in moderation. What kills your diet is when you consume the entire pizza followed by a carton of ice cream because you cannot stop once you start due to the way your diet has programmed you. Find balance, over time your mental health, and your physique will thank you!" -Layne Norton

A restrictive diet will do more harm than good in the long run. Cheat meals are more of an indicator of a poor relationship with food or possible early signs of eating disorders. Moderation and balance in your dieting efforts is the key to long term success and making dieting a normal, healthy part of your lifestyle. 

There is no such thing as clean/dirty or good/bad foods. If you speak in such ways then it’s a dead giveaway that your knowledge of the bare basics and fundamentals of nutrition science is lacking. Being healthy isn’t just about your physical well being, but also how you are mentally and emotionally which when dieting improperly can take a significant blow.

A balanced approach does not require cheat meals or days. You’ll feel like you’re cheating the system when you learn to practice moderation and flexibility in your diet and you’ll be at a healthier state.

"Few things are more pretentious, hypocritical, and downright annoying to me than people who act morally superior about eating ‘clean’ but then have massive binges that they try to justify as ‘cheat’ meals. Let me tell you something, severe caloric restriction followed by massive uncontrolled binging is NOT an effective long term diet solution for your health… mentally or physically. It’s a recipe for an eating disorder. FIND BALANCE! Stop attaching ‘good’ or ‘bad’ labels to food. A small amount of ‘unclean’ food isn’t going to ruin your diet if you account for it in your macronutrient intake and consume it in moderation. What kills your diet is when you consume the entire pizza followed by a carton of ice cream because you cannot stop once you start due to the way your diet has programmed you. Find balance, over time your mental health, and your physique will thank you!" -Layne Norton

Calorie Detective by Casey Neistat

Diet programs revolve around a proven principle: if you burn more calories than you consume, you will lose weight. The calorie is the defining metric. And so, in the interest of public health, the Food and Drug Administration requires most packaged foods to list their calories, among other data, on labels. To help combat obesity in New York City, the Department of Health requires most chain restaurants to post calorie content on their menus and fines those who don’t comply. Thanks to the Affordable Care Act, a national program will soon follow.

In theory, this is a valuable reform. But there’s one glaring problem. According to the F.D.A. and the city’s health department, no one verifies the accuracy of these calorie listings. The system essentially runs on an honor system. Food vendors can list whatever numbers they want, until someone (somehow) catches a problem and files a complaint. So, as an obsessive calorie counter myself, I wanted to find out: how accurate are these labels?

Let me try to explain my philosophy on eating out when trying to count calories or macronutrients in order to be accurate with your daily intake. It should be done sparingly, limited primarily to special occasions or social events. Whether the restaurant (or eatery) puts up the caloric content hardly matters as they are always, always, always inaccurate. There is always a margin of error, but just how big is the margin of error is really the question.

The best way to more precise with your daily intake is to prepare your food at home. This allows you the ability to weigh (by far the most accurate method) and control the exact portions. Now, I’m not saying that you have to be a religious in weighing your food, in fact, I hope that you wouldn’t ever feel like you always have to. However, you should try it out for a minimum of a few weeks to get an idea of the portion sizes that you should be consuming and the caloric content of those portions.

My last thought is that if you’ve never counted your calories, weighed your food, and prepared it yourself then you really have never known in a given day how much you’ve eaten. How could you? I talk a lot to people that are frustrated with being overweight, yet they don’t count their calories. When I ask why they will swear up and down that they “don’t eat that much” each day. Typically what I find out is that after having the person track their caloric intake for two weeks to a month that these same people come to realize that they truly had no idea how much they were eating each day and it’s usually a bit too much. Oftentimes this is due to what I call “mindless eating” or eating out of boredom and is easily corrected when you realize you’re doing it.

Resources on how to track calories and macronutrients? Check out this page.

Debunking the Paleo Diet

Christina Warinner is an expert on ancient diets. So how much of the diet fad the “Paleo Diet” is based on an actual Paleolithic diet? The answer is not really any of it.

Dr. Christina Warinner has excavated around the world, from the Maya jungles of Belize to the Himalayan mountains of Nepal, and she is pioneering the biomolecular investigation of archaeological dental calculus (tartar) to study long-term trends in human health and diet. She is a 2012 TED Fellow, and her work has been featured in Wired UK, the Observer, CNN.com, Der Freitag, and Sveriges TV. She obtained her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 2010, specializing in ancient DNA analysis and paleodietary reconstruction.

Ask anyone around you and I’m willing to bet the majority will tell you that organic is somehow superior to conventionally grown crops. Whether it be the taste, the micronutrient quality, the overall freshness and safety, or the gaping hole it burns into your wallet, organic foods have been touted as “nutritionally superior” almost everywhere you look.

But is this true? Is there really any benefit from eating organic as opposed to conventionally grown crops? I hope this blog post will help shed some light on the topic and hopefully by the end of this, I’ll be able to answer those questions. Let’s jump right into it.

Most people preach going organic for the simple reason that there aren’t any synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, food additives, GMOs, etc. used when growing them [1]. Conventional crops, however, allow for growing out of season, greater resistance, and a much higher yield of crops.

Read more at Nutristrength

If you don’t think that “buy organic” is a marketing ploy to take more of your money then you need a serious wake up call. Don’t be sheep when it comes to your health.

Let the take away from the post be about how there is negligible difference in nutrient composition, but a major difference in price. Being healthy isn’t costly. Understand that you’re paying for the word “organic” being on a product.

Don’t like the article? Read the studies (like you should be doing) and develop your own opinions. Don’t be sheep.

Interview with The Spartan Warrior

I was asked to do an interview through an e-mail exchange a few months back for an individual that would be submitting it to their university’s website and newspaper. There’s some good information in here and since I get a lot of these same questions in e-mail I thought I’d post it up to let you read through it. Enjoy.

Tell me a little bit about yourself, what you do, and what made you decide to start thespartanwarrior.com

My name is Daniel Brown and I am a student, powerlifter, coach, nutrition consultant, and am still in the process of seeking further education in nutrition and exercise science.

I started my website, TheSpartanWarrior.com, first as a blog to track my own personal experiences with fitness but soon found that I had a platform to enable me to reach a broader audience and assist others in their desire to better themselves. This has led me to transition from a personal blog to more of a research based database and website to give people factual information to check out.

Where do you derive most of your information from on your website?

There really is no one place where most of the information on my website comes from. It’s varied with anything from my own written articles to peer reviewed scientific research from nutrition and science journals to interviews and quotes from some of the most respected minds in nutrition and fitness. Oh, the occasional funny meme as well.

How many followers do you have?

Just under 90,000 currently.

What are some interesting things people may/may not know about you and what you do?

I have come to find that many people think that I have always been in good shape or that I was just born into the education I have now on these topics, but that is very far from the truth. I have spent 11 years (on and off) looking for answers and techniques to achieve a healthier life for myself and for others through nutrition and fitness. More than half of my life was actually spent overweight and thoroughly unhappy struggling to find the right answers. Through those years I learned a great deal from mistakes, misinformation, and practice though so I would not have it any other way.

Something else that most people would not guess, I suppose, is that I’m also a pretty big geek. I’m a huge cinephile and I play video games quite often. I even worked in the video game industry for nearly 6 years before transitioning to a full-on focus of nutrition and exercise sciences.

You offer a page with “Nutrition for Newbies” what are some important tips you can suggest to men and women who are looking to lose significant amounts of weight?

The first step is easily the hardest. You have to make the decision that you want to change and that this decision is important enough to fully dedicate yourself to day in and day out.

Secondly, it’s all about baby steps. Too many people try to dive in head first and become so overwhelmed by a massive amount of change in diet and activity that they don’t stick to a plan. My initial recommendation is to seek out something that gets you more active on a regular basis that you can find some sort of enjoyment in doing. This could literally be anything from lifting weights to playing Dance Dance Revolution. No amount of “more” activity is bad in the beginning.

Then comes what is truly most importantly in my eyes. Get a better understanding of the basics of nutrition. Ever read a nutrition label and it was like looking at a foreign language? That’s a big problem. I have a few pages in my nutrition articles that are great primers for all your basic nutrition information needs.

What are the common misconceptions you find people have about weight loss?

Nutrition in general is just full of one misconception after another. The amount of misinformation and inaccuracies that people blindly follow is astounding. One of the biggest ones I see daily is that people follow diets that completely cut out entire food groups or macronutrients. Going from a diet where you eat anything and everything to an extremely restrictive diet is simply setting yourself up for disaster and failure. Psychologically that will play havoc with discipline in being able to follow the diet and having the ability to stay satisfied with your new lifestyle.

For a person who is trying to make a drastic lifestyle change, do you feel it is more effective to take a monitored approach as opposed to a self-started regime?

Everyone is going to be different in this regard. Some will find it extremely beneficial to have someone coach them through the beginning, but the problem here is finding a coach with adequate knowledge to guide a beginner down a path that will lead them to a lifetime of success. Sadly, there aren’t many coaches out there that live up to that type of expectation.

Many people hire a coach or personal trainer to provide them with sparks of motivation. No person or one thing is going to provide someone with the motivation and discipline they need day in and day out to make a change like this. There really has to be an internal driving force of passion to make the changes necessary. Motivation comes from within and if you can’t push yourself to take the necessary steps in staying driven, persistent, and disciplined to what you’re doing then no one else will be able to help you. This applies to all avenues of your life.

Do you believe that the BMI is an accurate representation of the average weight a person should fall into based on their age, gender and height? What are some flaws that need to be adjusted and how so?

I’m in the boat here of doing away with the BMI scale overall… However, it can be useful for some of the population, but there are going to be many instances where it becomes completely flawed. For example, a person with lower body fat levels and a good amount of lean muscle mass is going to have a higher BMI reading giving the indication they are overweight. Lots of athletes and bodybuilders will fall victim to that problem. The BMI scale uses height, weight and age. You would think waist circumference would be of greater importance for a system to determine if someone is overweight.

How would you suggest one determine their weight loss goal?

Most people fixate on a random number they want to see on a scale or a number of pounds they would like to lose. Whereas this can be a great initial motivator I believe that relying on a number to determine how you feel, which most do, is absurd. You’re going to become obsessed with that scale and that can be quite destructive. All of my trainees focus on a day to day understanding of how they’re feeling and how they look from seeing themselves in a mirror and comparing their progress pictures over time.

Setting a weight loss goal is quite individual. I usually attempt to steer people more towards how clothes fit and measurements as those are going to be more reliable for fat loss. This also takes a lot of the pressure away from seeing a certain number on the scale. I truly believe that doing away with the scale is healthier in the long run.

Don’t make your worth about a number displayed under your feet. Make your worth about your ability to strive towards goals in the weight room, the track, or in something that you can make progress in linearly. 

What are some key foods and ingredients you recommend for weight loss and why?

Most people that are overweight are so because their diet (nutritional intake) is wrecked. Primarily this is due to an over consumption of food and not necessarily because their diet is lacking specific foods. However, I will say that anyone wanting to be healthier overall should include more whole foods into their diet. Everyone should be getting a better balance of foods coming from a variety of places such as: lean protein sources, vegetables, fruits, and fibrous carbohydrates. 

What are some foods and ingredients to avoid?

I am rather largely known as someone that champions the idea that everything is okay to consume as long as it’s done in moderation. I think there’s a lot of psychological relief that comes with that mentality for people striving for fat loss. This most definitely aides in winning the psychological battle, which I believe is the most important part of the game.

Now, I don’t want to leave someone without an easy answer here so to make things simple I would generally tell someone that asked this question to try and cut out a majority of processed foods that they eat, to stay away from empty calories coming in the form of liquids like non diet sodas and most condiments, and try to manage the way their food is prepared by going for healthier options like grilled over fried. Small amounts of these “not as good for you” options are still okay as long it’s done infrequently.

Do you feel that a lot of people lack proper nutrition education and would you say this is a problem with public health in general? What are some of the growing  concerns about health and active living you find cripples North Americans?

Absolutely. The lack of education among the general population is what I consider to be the largest problem. Frankly, I believe this is a major attributing factor to the rising rates of obesity in children and adults. The majority of people simply just don’t know any better. Also, as a nation we just aren’t active like we should be. We’re damning ourselves to be overweight by over consumption of food coupled with the lack of activity. This sedentary lifestyle can be linked to how lazy we have become. Video games, smart phones, computers, TV, etc. People don’t have to leave their couch to order a pizza and get hours of entertainment. Hell, people will drive two blocks to go to a Starbucks instead of walking. These same people don’t seem to have a reason to move until their faced with things like heart disease, diabetes, and death.

There are a lot of weight loss programs out there like Weight Watchers that offers people ideas on how to eat better while constraining the amounts of food you consume and incorporating exercise into your lifestyle. Would you say this is an effective way to lose weight? Are there better alternatives?

Well, eating less overall and becoming more active are the winning factors to weight loss, so they (Weight Watchers) are definitely on the right track. I think it’s a great starting point for a lot of people. Weight Watchers is actually one of the programs I like best because of their philosophy of not really restricting the types of food, but the amount of food. Unfortunately, like all dieting programs, it lacks in educating the people that use the program more. Nothing is ever going to oust proper education as the most effective way to get healthier. Another program that I would recommend is the DASH diet, which again is just a diet that wants you to restrict calories and eat more whole foods.

What should people be skeptical of when they join weight loss programs?

Everything. Be skeptical of everything in this industry. More specifically, if a program seems overly complicated, gimmicky, or restricts entire types of foods or macronutrients then those should be major red flags. Getting healthy shouldn’t cost you an arm and a leg either so stay away from programs that are high in price.

What are some of the best tips to keep people motivated and on track when they are trying to lose weight?

Something important to remember is that it’s not going to happen overnight. Dedication and discipline are the two most important things to keep in mind. Something I’ve always reminded my trainees when they don’t feel like working out is that you really never regret going to the gym, but you’ll always regret it not going.

Nothing worth having is handed to you. Put in hard work, stay patient, and the results will come.

How does one determine how much physical activity they need to do?

The general population should just focus on doing more than what they are currently doing. As a beginner I would start by aiming for three to four days a week of thirty minutes to an hour of some form of extracurricular activity or exercise to increase the heart rate.

A lot of people look at numbers and sometimes don’t realize that what they are losing is water weight and not fat. How does one work at losing fat and what is some basic information one needs to know?

The people that I come across most that obsess over weight loss numbers are going to be those that are addicted to cardio. They also are typically the people that seem to find themselves watching their weight on the scale bounce up and down due to water fluctuations. This is a simple fix. I would reserve doing cardio for improving cardiovascular health and not as the primary means to weight loss. Sounds crazy, right? There is a time and a place for cardio and sadly the majority of people use it in the wrong way. I’m not saying that it’s not an effective way to lose weight, because it most certainly can be. The problem is that most use it as their only means for weight loss or to make up for a poor diet and there are better ways to go about it.

In terms of determining fat loss when water weight fluctuation can be an issue a measuring tape is going to be much more accurate than a scale.

Do you believe in using supplements? How does a person know which supplements to take? What are some you suggest?

Supplements can be beneficial for some, but are not necessary for all. Unfortunately, most supplements are practically worthless in the grand scheme of things. I see the supplement industry as a big joke full of scams and lies. The benefit of supplements is more found in their convenience, but they are not and should be used as a direct replacement for whole foods and a properly balanced diet only as a means to make sure you’re getting everything you need.

Determining what supplements to take as a beginner can be quite overwhelming. The reason being is that a lot of people want results from a bottle or a magic pill. They want a shortcut. Well, news flash everyone there is no shortcut. Putting in hard work and following a good diet are what will get you the results you seek over time.

Typically, I don’t suggest a lot for people outside of whey protein, creatine monohydrate, a good multi-vitamin, and then whatever else the person may be individually deficient in determined by their average dietary intake or locale.

What are some emotional things you feel people struggle with that prevent them from being successful and altering their health choices?

There is way too much of people comparing themselves to others. It is human nature for us to do this, but people put entirely too much focus into trying to look like someone else that is at their peak condition as opposed to just wanting to feel better and get healthier themselves. Those people that are often getting compared to like models, actors/actresses, bodybuilders, and athletes have worked for years and years on their physiques and aren’t always built using the same methods that the general population have access to. It’s okay to be inspired by other people, but keep your focus on yourself. Try not to compare your weaknesses with the strengths of others.

What’s the hardest part about losing weight?

Weight isn’t that hard to lose. You can chop off your legs and.. voila!.. weight loss. A shift in energy balance is all it takes for weight loss. However, finding the balance of fat loss and retaining lean muscle (fat free) mass can be tricky and that is what should be the goal.

In the long run the hardest part is going to be having the dedication day in and day out to be proactive in achieving your goals. No one can give this to you. You have to wake up every single day with the passion to make a difference in your own life. 

Abstract (provisional)

Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients—primarily protein and carbohydrate—in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance. Several researchers have made reference to an anabolic “window of opportunity” whereby a limited time exists after training to optimize training-related muscular adaptations. However, the importance - and even the existence - of a post-exercise ‘window’ can vary according to a number of factors. Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1) to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2) to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be made for maximizing the anabolic response to exercise.

The complete article featured in the JISSN can be viewed in provisional PDF format here.

After a very rushed look over of the paper a few quick points would be:

  • the mythological “anabolic window” exists to a degree when trained in an overnight fasted state or when no intake of nutrients within 5-6 hours prior to training
  • pre-workout nutrition is beneficial as a pre/during/post training meal and is widely overlooked unfortunately

There looks to be a lot of other great information as well and I’ll dig in deeper when I have a bit of free time, but I wanted to get this posted to make sure everyone has a chance to get an idea of the bigger picture.

Simply put you should eat some sort of meal around training whether it be before or after, but don’t stress about the details of it having a specific time line that always must be adhered to. There is no magic meal 30 minutes before, must have a shake during, or have to eat within an hour of training guideline. Eat and train. Do both when you are able to. Keep it simple, stick to it, and you’ll be successful.

I have also written an article that was posted last year on this matter that includes quotes from Alan Aragon that you can check out here - Nutrient Timing: Does When You Eat Matter?